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Consejo IT : Amenazas para el mundo informatico en 2012 – Parte 3

A medida que la tecnología evoluciona y el uso de Internet y dispositivos móviles se vuelven más complejo, los delincuentes cibernéticos también están evolucionando y afinando sus habilidades con nuevos tipos de ataques.
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Cada año, los amigos de McAfee Labs examina las tendencias que se han visto en los últimos 12 meses para realizar predicciones sobre qué tipo de amenazas de seguridad se esperan para el año siguiente. Aunque mirar a futuro puede ser impredecible, puede ayudar a preparar a las organizaciones para ciertas posibles amenazas que puedan surgir.

En esta Tercera y ultima entrega, trataremos las amenazas de seguridad a:

  • El spam tradicional se hará "legítimo", mientras que el spearphishing evolucionará en el ataque de mensajería dirigida
  • Los botnets y rootkits móviles madurarán y convergerán
  • Los certificados fraudulentos y las entidades de certificación fraudulentas socavarán la confianza de los usuarios
  • Los avances en los sistemas operativos y la seguridad impulsarán botnets y rootkits de última generación

    Para ayudar a las organizaciones a prepararse mejor para esta nueva ola de amenazas, McAfee ha preparado recomendaciones asociadas con cada amenaza.

7. El spam tradicional se hará "legítimo", mientras que el spearphishing evolucionará en mensajería dirigida

La amenaza: McAfee Labs ha observado una caída en los volúmenes globales de spam en los últimos dos años. Sin embargo, los anunciantes legítimos están retomando el camino donde quedaron los spammers, como comprar listas de correo electrónico de usuarios que "aceptado" recibir publicidad o comprar bases de datos de clientes a empresas que van a cerrar. McAfee Labs espera que este spam "legal" y la técnica conocida como "snowshoe spamming" para seguir creciendo a un ritmo más veloz que el phishing ilegal y los fraudes de confianza.

Lo que las organizaciones deben hacer:  las técnicas de "snowshoe spam" que serán tan populares el año entrante dictan un enfoque más integral de prevención. Cuando los motores de spam cambien la ID de dominio y la dirección IP cada hora más o menos, las técnicas de firma e incluso de filtrado heurístico captarán una fracción todavía más pequeña de correo no solicitado. Las organizaciones no pueden dejar de usarlas, pero pueden agregar técnicas sofisticadas de filtrado de redes con fuentes de datos en tiempo real que identifiquen y bloqueen cada ataque cuando el spammer cambie la IP de origen.  

Al mismo tiempo, la TI empresarial debe comprender que muchos de los intentos de los delincuentes por hacer dinero a partir del spam han pasado a spearphishing, lo cual no se presta mucho para una solución de tecnología pura. La mejor defensa contra el spearphishing es la educación de los empleados (en particular, de los empleados ejecutivos). La tecnología de firewall de última generación también puede ayudar a evitar que los empleados accedan a sitios fraudulentos.

8. Los botnets y rootkits móviles madurarán y convergerán

La amenaza: 2011 ha visto los mayores niveles en la historia del malware móvil. En 2012, McAfee Labs espera que los atacantes móviles mejoren su conjunto de habilidades y avancen hacia ataques de transacciones móviles. Técnicas que antes se dedicaban a la banca en línea, como robar a las víctimas mientras todavía están conectadas y haciéndolo parecer como que las transacciones vienen de un usuario legítimo, ahora se dirigirán a usuarios de transacciones bancarias. McAfee Labs espera que los ataques omitan las computadoras personales y vayan directamente a aplicaciones bancarias móviles, a medida que cada vez más usuarios administran sus finanzas en dispositivos móviles.

Lo que las organizaciones deben hacer:  el número de dispositivos móviles que representan amenaza todavía es extremadamente pequeño y no todos ellos tienen siquiera la capacidad de hacer mucho daño.  Los delincuentes cibernéticos están en misiones de reconocimiento más que cualquier otra cosa.  Esto cambiará, sin embargo, y cuando suceda, la TI empresarial debe estar preparada.  

En 2012, las organizaciones deben desarrollar políticas de seguridad y acceso móvil, y determinar exactamente qué tipo de tecnologías se necesitarán para evitar que la era móvil arruine por completo la seguridad de la información empresarial.

9. Los certificados fraudulentos y las entidades de certificación fraudulentas socavarán la confianza de los usuarios

La amenaza: las organizaciones y las personas tienden a confiar en certificados con firma digital, no obstante, las recientes amenazas, como Stuxnet y Duqu utilizaron certificados fraudulentos para evadir la detección. McAfee Labs espera ver un aumento en la producción y circulación de certificados falsos fraudulentos en 2012.

Los ataques de amplia escala a las autoridades de certificados y el uso extendido de certificados digitales fraudulentos afectarán a la infraestructura clave, la exploración y las transacciones seguras además de a las tecnologías basadas en un host, como las listas aprobadas y el control de aplicaciones.

Lo que las organizaciones deben hacer:  primero, las organizaciones deben asegurarse de que todos los certificados SSL que usan en su curso normal de negocio sean actuales y no dependan de la autorización de ningún emisor sospechoso.  McAfee espera que en 2012 empiecen a aparecer listas de emisores "buenos" y "cuestionables". Segundo, las políticas deben desarrollarse e implementarse para abordar certificados "autofirmados".  Aceptar un certificado autofirmado de una empresa bien conocida como Verisign es sensato, por el contrario, aceptar uno de una fuente desconocida en Ucrania es una propuesta muy diferente.

10. Los avances en los sistemas operativos y la seguridad impulsarán botnets y rootkits de última generación

La amenaza: las nuevas características de seguridad incorporadas en el centro del sistema operativo provocarán que los hackers encuentren entradas alternativas: penetrando por el hardware y saliendo por el sistema operativo. Atacar el hardware y el firmware no es fácil, pero el éxito permite a los atacantes crear malware persistente en tarjetas de red, discos duros e incluso en BIOS (sistema básico de entrada/salida) del sistema. McAfee Labs espera ver que se realicen más esfuerzos en exploits de hardware y firmware y sus ataques del mundo real relacionados durante el año 2012.

Lo que las organizaciones deben hacer:  desde una perspectiva preceptiva, este problema tiene la ventaja de que la solución tiene que ser casi completamente tecnológica sin participación alguna del usuario.  Las organizaciones no pueden solucionar este problema con educación, de manera que la TI empresarial deberá desarrollar políticas y procedimientos, e implementar herramientas de prevención y mitigación conforme esta clase de amenaza prolifera.

En resumen

A medida que la tecnología evoluciona y nuestro uso de Internet y de los dispositivos móviles se vuelven más complejo, los delincuentes cibernéticos también están evolucionando y afinando sus habilidades con nuevos tipos de ataques. Pero aun cuando algunas de estas amenazas pueden dar miedo, la realidad es que muchas ofrecen nuevas perspectivas de antiguas formas de ataque y con un poco de previsión y preparación, las organizaciones pueden protegerse contra ellas.

 

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